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HOSM 399

Basics of 7th Edition APA Style

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7th Edition Information/Examples for In-Text Citation

Basic Principles: Citation is used to avoid plagiarism and to enable people to quickly find where information was found. You will find the basic information to include and the rationale for citing information in your paper.

Appropriate Level of Citation: This explanation is meant to prevent students from under citing and over citing in their papers. (See page 253)

Author-Date Citation System: Many examples of in-text citation including new rules for citing 3 or more authors.

Paraphrasing: Even when putting another author's idea in your own words, it is necessary to give the author credit. While it is not required to include the page number, it can be included if you feel readers would want to more easily find the information. (8.23 Principles of Paraphrasing on page 269)

Quotations: Examples include short and block (40 words or more) quotations

Situations using Direct Quotations (See Sections 8.25, 8.26, 8.27,  & 8.28 in the APA Publication Manual; See also Table 8.2 for Examples of Direct Quotations Cited in the Text on page 272)

Citing Personal Communications: These are cited in the text but are not included in the references because they can not be retrieved by the reader.

Secondary Sources: This is a situation where a different author is cited in the source you are reading. You should only cite this author if you cannot find their original work. It should be done very seldom.

Restricted Classroom or Internet Sources: These are sources that can only be retrieved by certain audiences. This might include sources from a restricted class website or learning management system.

Citing Oral Traditions and Traditional Knowledge that is not recorded: (See Section 8.9 in the APA Publication Manual 

***For more information (and examples) go to the In-Text Citations page of the APA Style blog.


7th Edition Information/Examples for References

Basic Principles of Reference List Entries: Includes components, rules for punctuation, and Examples of Where to Find Reference Information for a Journal Article entry.

Reference Examples: Examples of the most common types of works are included so you can model these examples. (Also, see the 7th Edition Quick Reference Guide attached at the bottom of this section.)

See Templates and examples (in the APA Publication Manual for more information) for the following categories of sources:

  • Periodicals (p. 316)
  • Books and Reference Works (p. 321)
  • Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works (p. 326)
  • Reports and Gray Literature (p. 329)
  • Conference Sessions and Presentations (p, 332)
  • Dissertations and Theses (p. 333)
  • Reviews (p. 334)
  • Unpublished Works and Informally Published Works (p. 335)
  • Data sets, Software, and Tests (p. 338)
  • Computer Software, Mobile Apps, Apparatus, and Equipment (p. 339)
  • Tests, Scales, and Inventories (p. 340)
  • Audiovisual Media (p. 341)
  • Online Media (p. 348)
  • Webpages and Websites (p. 351)

Missing Reference Information: Table of solutions for creating references when information is missing. Some examples are also provided.

DOIs and URLs: You will learn when to include DOIs and URLs, how they should be formatted, and how to shorten a DOI or URL.

Works Included: See the rules for what must be included and what should be excluded from a reference list. 

Legal References: (See Chapter 11 in the APA Publication Manual for more information; pp. 355-368.)

Creating an Annotated Bibliography: (See Section 9.51 in the APA Publication Manual for more information and Figure 9. 3, Sample Annotated Bibliography on page 308).


***For more information go to the References page on the APA Style blog.

7th Edition Information/Examples for Tables and Figures

Table Setup:

  1. Number
  2. Title
  3. Headings: All tables include column headings. Some might also include column spanners, decked headings, and table spanners.
  4. Body: Includes all columns and rows of the table.
  5. Notes: Used if the title and body are not sufficient for the reader to understand the table.

Sample Tables

Table Checklist: (See Section 7.20, p. 207 the APA Publication Manual).

Figure Setup:

  1. Number
  2. Title
  3. Image: Formats include graphs, charts, drawings, photographs, or some other type of illustration.
  4. Legend (Key): This is only needed if the figure includes symbols, line styles, shading or patterns that need explaining.
  5. Note: Included only if the figure's content needs explanation.

Sample Figures

Accessible Use of Color in Figures: Color is not required. If it is utilized, you should use a Colour Contrast Analyzer to make sure readers with a color-vision deficiency can distinguish between the colors. Readers who print out the figure in grayscale would also be able to distinguish components of the figure.

***For more information go to the Tables and Figures page on the APA Style blog.

7th Edition Formatting Information

Headings: Rules and formatting for headings. The formatting has been changed to avoid the use of italics in this edition.

Sample Title Pages: Both professional and student papers. (See the Student Title Page Guide, found below, for more information.) There is also an explanation of how to format Author Bylines and Affiliations. (See Sections 2.5 & 2.6,  p. 34 in the APA Publication Manual for more information). 

Sample Student and Professional Papers

Acceptable Font Updated: Acceptable fonts are suggested for the paper, tables, and figures. However, students should follow the instructor's requirements. 


7th Edition Writing Style and Grammar

Anthropomorphism: This term means that a writer gives human attributes to an inanimate object or an animal. A chart provides correct and incorrect examples of acceptable APA wording.

Verb Tense Chart: Recommended verb tenses and examples are provided for each section of the paper.

Use of First-Person Pronouns: Proper use of pronouns is provided for one or multiple authors.

Singular "They": Rules of pronoun usage are explained in order to be inclusive and avoid gender assumptions.



7th Edition Mechanics of Style

Use of Italics: Charts for situations and examples for when to use and not to use italics.

Use of Quotation Marks: Charts for situations and examples for when to use and not to use quotation marks. Note the use of quotation marks around the title of a periodical article or book when the title is used in the text of the paper. (Note: This does not apply to the Reference list.)

Acceptable Spellings of Technology Terms

Updated Capitalization Rules for Medical Terms (See Section 6.16, p. 166  in the APA Publication Manual).